Space Tribes

Space Tribes Differentiating Space Operators in a Crowded Space Community By Lieutenant Colonel Henry Heren, US Space Force, JAPCC ‘Where you stand depends on where you sit.’1 Introduction ‘We have declared space an operational domain for NATO, recognising its importance in keeping us safe and tackling security challenges, while upholding international law,’2 announced the North Atlantic…

Responsive Space for NATO Operations – Part 2

Responsive Space for NATO Operations – Part 2 By Wolfgang Jung, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) By Lieutenant Colonel Tim Vasen, GE AF, JAPCC By Dr Dirk Zimper, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Introduction Space Support plays a significant role in today’s modern warfare and is a key enabler for NATO’s technical and operational advantage. Worldwide technical…

The ‘Land Approach’ to the Space Domain

The ‘Land Approach’ to the Space Domain Developing Space Expertise in Land Forces By Major General Gianluca Carai, Chief of General Planning and Financial Division of Italian Army General Staff Introduction Space has recently been recognized by NATO1 as the fifth operational domain for military operations and guarantees fundamental services and applications for all Armed Forces,…

Congested Outer Space

Congested Outer Space Increased Deployment of Small Satellite Constellations Could Hamper Military Space Operations By Arthur Wong, Strategic Development of Forces Division, SHAPE Introduction When thinking about satellite construction, most people envision multi-billion dollar projects and satellites which are equal to the size of a city bus. The satellite itself includes expensive equipment as well…

New Space – Advantage or Threat for the Military?

New Space Advantage or Threat for the Military? By Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Grest, DEU AF, JAPCC Introduction The importance of Space-based capabilities in today’s modern world and especially in technologically advanced armed forces is beyond dispute. Satellite communications, precise positioning and navigation, time synchronization as well as Space-based Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) bring inestimable…

Space Support in NATO Operations

Space Support in NATO Operations By Lieutenant Colonel Tim Vasen, DEU A, JAPCC Space Support Services NATO, as a technologically advanced Alliance, relies significantly on space-based services. NATO does not own or operate Space systems. Space systems will remain under national control for the foreseeable future. This necessitates a coordinating function to ensure Space support…

Is NATO Ready for Galileo?

Is NATO Ready for Galileo? How the Combination of GPS and Galileo could Increase NATO’s Resiliency in PNT By Lieutenant Colonel Tim Vasen, DEU A, JAPCC Introduction NATO operations rely significantly on space support services given by the member nations. One of the most essential is the Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) service1, provided by…