White Papers

The JAPCC regularly publishes the outcomes of projects, activities, and key deliverables in the form of ‘White Papers’ covering a wealth of themed topics to help promote a better understanding of Air and Space Power subject matter that is developing globally.

Since 2005, the JAPCC has produced more than 50 White Papers on a huge range of subjects from Force Protection to Air Warfare Communications in a Networked Environment to Multinational Space Situational Awareness.

A complete list of White Papers published by the JAPCC can be downloaded from this page.


National Military Space Operations Centres

Requirements on National Centres with Respect to NATO Needs
NATO does not have space-based resources of its own; however, the organization is heavily and increasingly dependent on space data, products and services to conduct military operations, missions and other activities, as well as executing [...]


Establishing a NATO-owned Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance Capability
Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities of a coalition, such as NATO, have always played a key role in the success of operations. Although often this is considered an invisible job, the data collection and [...]

Resiliency in Space as a Combined Challenge for NATO

Today’s military operations rely significantly on Space support. NATO Allies are operating modern and technically advanced armed forces. This technical advantage can be seen as a kind of deterrence, but recent worldwide developments in counter-Space [...]

From Ground to Exosphere

15-Years of The Joint Air Power Competence Centre
Dear Colleagues, I am often asked what an Air Power Competence Centre is and what it does? I also have to sometimes explain, in these increasingly resource-constrained times, the value of the JAPCC’s work to [...]

NATO Force Protection on a Knife Edge

A Think-Piece
Like previous Force Protection (FP) pieces published by the JAPCC, this work is designed to be a ‘Think-Piece’. Its purpose is to provoke debate with the deliberate intention of engaging and challenging colleagues in that [...]

Big Data Management in ISR and New Technology Trends

The digital revolution and the endless use of data are transforming the way we live and work. Simultaneously, new technologies through data are providing great opportunities to make military operations different from the past. Command [...]

JAPCC Capstone Document 2020

The Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC) was formally established on 1 January 2005 to provide the strategic level proponent for Joint Air and Space Power that was missing in NATO. Soon thereafter, JAPCC was [...]

Reshaping Close Support

A Future Vision of Close Joint Support Troops are in contact across a broad, disjointed front. Joint Fires Controllers (JFCs) and their assigned teams of Joint Fires Observers (JFOs) are in high demand and are [...]

Command and Control of a Multinational Space Surveillance and Tracking Network

Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) is the ability to detect and predict the position of space objects in orbit around the Earth, and is generally recognized as a fundamental component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). [...]

The Implications for Force Protection Practitioners of Having to Counter Unmanned Systems

A Think-Piece
The subject of Counter-Unmanned Air Systems (C-UAS) has become what can best be described as a ‘hot-topic’, not just for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) but, globally. The primary question that this think-piece seeks [...]

Future Battlefield Rotorcraft Capability

Anno 2035 and Beyond
Forecasting the future is a daunting task, however, identified fast-moving trends across the diplomatic, information, military, and economic subjects are rapidly transforming the nature of all aspects of society and human life, including the character [...]

Think-Piece on Force Protection Command and Control (FPC2)

The Airbase of the future will likely be a location where multiple nations come together to operate a wide variety of different air platforms, in substantial numbers. Furthermore, the capability, scarcity and cost of fifth-generation [...]

NATO Joint Air Power and Offensive Cyber Operations

The successful projection of Joint Air Power relies heavily on Cyberspace for complex mission systems, C4ISR and Space Support to Operations. Assets operating in the air environment must have freedom of movement, literally and in [...]

NATO Helicopter Underslung Load Certification

One method of quickly employing ground forces is through airmobile operations. When airmobile forces are employed by helicopter, part of their equipment is transported as an Underslung Load (USL) underneath the helicopter. For NATO forces [...]

Air Warfare Communication in a Networked Environment

Network technology is expanding at an exponential rate. As technology improves, effectively unlimited connectivity is no longer strictly a future concept; however, combined decision-making and data sharing processes (or maybe ‘protocols’) are not evolving at [...]

Mitigating Disinformation Campaigns Against Air Power

In military operations over the last twenty years, air power has repeatedly proven to be NATO’s great asymmetric advantage. Air power’s ability to accurately strike targets, support troops on the ground, provide accurate and timely [...]

Future Unmanned System Technologies

Legal and Ethical Implications of Increasing Automation
The number of unmanned systems in NATO nations’ military inventories has grown rapidly and is still increasing throughout all domains. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) currently represent the largest share of those systems. At the same [...]

Air Transport Training, Exercises and Interoperability

‘If I had a wish list, it would be more ISR capability, more airlift or more rapid global mobility, particularly with respect to air-to-air refuelling. I encourage things that will give us better interoperability among [...]

Alliance Airborne Anti-Submarine Warfare

A Forecast for Maritime Air ASW in the Future Operational Environment
As the Cold War ended and the Russian Federation’s naval projection was challenged both by the internal politics of glasnost and the stark realities of their national economic situation, their submarine deployments throughout the NATO [...]

NATO / Multinational Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Unit

A Feasibility Study
NATO military commanders and Alliance Leaders have consistently identified gaps in NATO’s Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and capacity including the entailed Processing, Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) processes. Exercises such as Unified Vision have begun [...]

Standardization of Qualifications for NATO Helicopter Crews in Support of Land Operations

The Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC) conducted a study in 2012 examining the vertical lift cap­ability of the majority of European NATO member states. The Study, etc.). However, problems related to standardization of qualifications [...]

Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in Contested Environments

A Vulnerability Analysis
Over the past two decades, Remotely Piloted Aircraft System(s) (RPAS) have been fielded in increasing numbers across many nations and military services. RPAS provide distinctive capabilities for the Joint Force Commander (JFC) with reduced risk [...]

Enhancing NATO Joint Personnel Recovery Capability

As we prepare for the future, it is critical that NATO and its nations capture the lessons identified from recent crisis response and combat operations. Turning these into lessons learned as we transition from NATO [...]

Improving NATO Support to Future Air Advisor Operations

NATO has stated that it is committed to providing long-term political and practical support to Afghanistan via a new post-2014 mission to train, advise and assist the Afghan National Security Forces. Additionally, the 2010 NATO [...]

Air-to-Air Refuelling Consolidation

‘Of all air power force-multipliers, Air-to-Air Refuelling (AAR) is amongst the most significant. It provides an essential capability that increases the range, endurance, payload and flexibility of all capable receiver aircraft, and is especially important [...]

Air and Space Power in Counter-Piracy Operations

NATO has been contributing military forces, mostly warships, to the Counter-Piracy (CP) mission off the Horn of Africa (HoA) since October 2008. Commanders at sea have made several strong appeals for more Air and Space [...]

Enhancing NATO’s Operational Helicopter Capability

The recent Iraq and Afghanistan campaigns have highlighted the unique capabilities helicopters have contributed to the asymmetric environment. However, whilst playing a decisive part in successful operations, it has become increasingly clear to commanders that [...]

Filling the Vacuum

A Framework for a NATO Space Policy
“Command and control of military forces, precise air power, missile guidance, troop movements, environmental reconnaissance, and missile warning all have come to depend, to a large degree, on information relayed by satellites.” The JAPCC originally [...]

Regional Fighter Partnership

Options for Cooperation and Cost Sharing
“The [financial] crisis makes cooperation between nations no longer a choice. It is a necessity. Today, no European Ally on its own is able to develop the full range of responses to meet all security [...]

NATO Air Transport Capability

An Assessment
“Supply and Transport stand or fall together; history depends on both.” Winston Churchill The Objective of Air Transport (AT) is best encapsu­lated in the Allied Tactical Publication (ATP) 3.3.4. ­Volume I, as follows: AT enables [...]

Air-to-Air Refuelling Flight Plan

An Assessment
During the Cold War the requirement for AAR was limited to the support of long-range strategic ­forces as many NATO Nations, certainly the European members, worked under the assumption that their respective Armed Forces would [...]

Personnel Recovery

That Others May Live to Return with Honour
Throughout history, armies traditionally fought the wars whilst government officials, explorers and tourists travelled and worked all over the globe. During war, travel or exploration, individuals may have become isolated from their group, or the [...]

Strategic Concept of Employment for Unmanned Aircraft Systems in NATO

This publication provides the fundamental guidance and an overarching concept for NATO operations and employment of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) through the full spectrum of military operations. It describes a capabilities-based approach to UAS employment, [...]

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