Land forces are required to operate in dynamic, complex and increasingly urban environments. To be successful they must contend with a range of conditions, including the population, geography, terrain, climate, electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) and the availability (or lack) of infrastructure in their area of operations. Land forces also face a number of other challenges, such as being required to execute missions in areas that do not permit a permanent presence to be maintained due to their size or character. Another challenge is the potential for the intensity of operations to change abruptly. Therefore, land forces must have a broad spectrum of capabilities and assets at different echelons, which must be employed according to the particular context.
(Allied Joint Doctrine for Land Operations, AJP-3.2 Ed. B, Feb. 2022)
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