Land Operations

Land forces are required to operate in dynamic, complex and increasingly urban environments. To be successful they must contend with a range of conditions, including the population, geography, terrain, climate, electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) and the availability (or lack) of infrastructure in their area of operations. Land forces also face a number of other challenges, such as being required to execute missions in areas that do not permit a permanent presence to be maintained due to their size or character. Another challenge is the potential for the intensity of operations to change abruptly. Therefore, land forces must have a broad spectrum of capabilities and assets at different echelons, which must be employed according to the particular context.

(Allied Joint Doctrine for Land Operations, AJP-3.2 Ed. B, Feb. 2022)

Related Publications

Close Air Support Command and Control

Digitally Enhanced CAS Operations
Today’s military operations are becoming more complicated with the increasing number and variety of options available to commanders at all levels. The expansion of military activity beyond the Air, Maritime, and Land domains to Space [...]

Air-Land Integration – Bridging the Gaps in Joint with Force Education and Training

Practical Solutions for Air-Land Interoperability in NATO
In military and industry circles, it is very common to hear technology promoted as a joint and interoperable capability without much attention being paid to the people employing those capabilities. No matter how much faith [...]

25 Years of Integrated Air and Missile Defence Training

Sharpening and Sharing Knowledge to Prepare for the Future
The Cold War timeframe is often looked upon as a gloomy era; however, it also provided positive things, like military, social, and relative political stability in Western Europe. The end of the Cold War gave [...]

Transitioning NATO to an All-Domain Mindset

Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO) is a concept with the ambition of maximizing the effectiveness of all declared NATO forces through broadly focusing on two critical interoperability areas: obstacles between services and across the nations. The [...]

The ‘Land Approach’ to the Space Domain

Developing Space Expertise in Land Forces
Space has recently been recognized by NATO as the fifth operational domain for military operations and guarantees fundamental services and applications for all Armed Forces, strongly influencing the success of modern military operations. Main services provided [...]

Aeromedical Evacuation in NATO

Where is the Alliance?
According to the NATO terminology database, Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) is the movement of patients under medical supervision by air transport to and between Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) as an integral part of the treatment continuum. In [...]

From Ground to Exosphere

15-Years of The Joint Air Power Competence Centre
Dear Colleagues, I am often asked what an Air Power Competence Centre is and what it does? I also have to sometimes explain, in these increasingly resource-constrained times, the value of the JAPCC’s work to [...]

NATO Force Protection on a Knife Edge

A Think-Piece
Like previous Force Protection (FP) pieces published by the JAPCC, this work is designed to be a ‘Think-Piece’. Its purpose is to provoke debate with the deliberate intention of engaging and challenging colleagues in that [...]

Future Battlespace Management

Fighting and Winning in the Increasingly Complex Air Operations Environment of the Future
Robust Anti-Access and Area-Denial (A2/AD) structures, coupled with the proliferation of advanced technologies across multiple domains, will dominate the third dimension in the coming decades. Potential adversaries will blend conventional, asymmetric, and hybrid capabilities across [...]

Force Protection Considerations

Overview The subject of Counter-Unmanned Aircraft Systems (C-UAS) has become what can best be described as a ‘hot-topic’ not just for NATO, but globally. From a Force Protection (FP) perspective, it is offered, the primary [...]

Protection of Critical Infrastructure

The challenges in countering drones are faced in both war and peacetime. As discussed in the previous chapters of this book, the risks presented by drones have increasingly come into the civilian focus over recent [...]

A Comprehensive Approach to Countering Unmanned Aircraft Systems

This technical manual covers all aspects of having to counter the full spectrum of unmanned aircraft and their respective system components. It should serve to bring together both civilian and military experts by initiating thought [...]

Air-Land Integration – NATO’s Strategic Joint Challenge

The Importance of Education and Training for Improving Joint Force Interoperability
As airmen and soldiers working in a joint force environment, various definitions and associations come to mind when discussing the extensive and historically important topic that entails the military effects of Air-Land Integration (ALI). ALI [...]

The Importance of Integrated Air and Missile Defence Training

A Renaissance of NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defence?
In January 1991, the Netherlands deployed two PATRIOT squadrons under Article 4 of the NATO agreement to South-East Turkey in support of operation ‘Desert Shield’. Not long afterwards a third PATRIOT Squadron was sent to [...]

Reshaping Close Support

A Future Vision of Close Joint Support Troops are in contact across a broad, disjointed front. Joint Fires Controllers (JFCs) and their assigned teams of Joint Fires Observers (JFOs) are in high demand and are [...]

NATO Training and Benefits of a Multi-Domain Approach to Targeting

Since the early 2000’s the western world, and particularly NATO, has been progressively scrutinized in their ability to conduct offensive operations. Targeting (the method by which we conduct offensive operations) has been developed and refined [...]

A Comprehensive Approach to Countering Unmanned Aircraft Systems

And Why Current Initiatives Fall Short
Over the last decades, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have been fielded in every military service, ranging from handheld micro-UAS to medium-sized tactical systems to fully grown and Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). At the same time, [...]

The Rise of Consumer Drones Threat

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), more commonly referred to as drones, have been one of the most rapidly advancing technologies developed in the last decade. While remotely-piloted aircraft have been traditionally used by the military and, [...]

Precision-Guided Munitions of the Future

And the Related Challenges to NATO
‘War has always been a chameleon, it is ever-changing, adapting to new circumstances and camouflaging itself …’ Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831) There has been a remarkable acceleration with the use of guided weapons since Operation [...]

Mission and Vision of Italian Army Aviation

An Interview with General Paolo Riccò, Commander of Italian Army Aviation
Over the last thirty years, without interruption, Italian Army Aviation has been employed in missions abroad and has operated in a broad spectrum of geographic and climatic locations. Army Aviation has adapted to combat multidimensional [...]

The Implications for Force Protection Practitioners of Having to Counter Unmanned Systems

A Think-Piece
The subject of Counter-Unmanned Air Systems (C-UAS) has become what can best be described as a ‘hot-topic’, not just for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) but, globally. The primary question that this think-piece seeks [...]

Future Battlefield Rotorcraft Capability

Anno 2035 and Beyond
Forecasting the future is a daunting task, however, identified fast-moving trends across the diplomatic, information, military, and economic subjects are rapidly transforming the nature of all aspects of society and human life, including the character [...]

Close Air Support of the Future

Is the Present Concept Still Adequate?
After the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan, many of the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP), as well as Lessons Learned/Lessons Identified (LL/LI) evolved within permissive air environments. [...]

Future Battlefield Rotorcraft Capability

Operating in the Land and Littoral Environment Anno 2035 - Part 2: Analysing Future User Requirements
This topic was the subject of an essay paper the author wrote under supervision of the University of Lincoln, UK. For the purpose of JAPCC Journal publication, the essay has been divided into three parts [...]

Future Options for Surface-Based Air and Missile Defence?

France, in 1794, was the first nation to use aerial balloons for reconnaissance purposes. Subsequently, it took almost 100 years for the German military to realize that small cannons could be used to intercept those [...]

Unintentional Air Strikes during Dynamic Operations

NATO Views and Possible Fixes
Images of bombed hospitals stunned participants of the 2016 JAPCC Conference, as a Panellist raised the unsettling and poignant issue about how operations sometimes transcend military objectives. Specifically, the panellist expressed concern about ‘recurring kinetic [...]

Detecting and Neutralizing Mini-Drones

Sensors and Effectors against an Asymmetric Threat
Small (15–150 kg), mini (<15 kg), micro (<66 J energy state) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) will drastically proliferate in the near future with rapidly advancing performance and functionalities. Progress in power storage, avionics miniaturization, materials [...]

Future Battlefield Rotorcraft Capability

Operating in the Land and Littoral Environment Anno 2035 - Part 1: Analysing the Future Operating Environment
This topic was the subject of an essay paper the author recently wrote under supervision of the University of Lincoln, UK. For the purpose of publication in this journal, the essay has been divided into [...]

Beating Brownout

Technology Helps, but Training Remains Key
When I started my helicopter pilot training at Whiting Field (US), I practiced my landings on clean, square, cement pavement. Conditions hardly differed when I made my first operational landings as a Navy helicopter pilot. [...]

The Rise of Close Air Support after World War II

Did the US Army and US Air Force Inter-Service Rivalry Benefit Close Air Support?
On a cold, clear night in Afghanistan in November 2011, an Air Force AC-130 Gunship and an AH-64 Apache check in with the Army ground party they are to work with. Both aircraft are providing [...]

The Competence Centre for Surface Based Air and Missile Defence

Preserving the EADTF Legacy and Furthering the IAMD Mission
On 3 December 1999, the Extended Air Defence Task Force (EADTF) was installed in Burbach, Germany. At that time, the mission spectrum for Ground Based Air Defence (GBAD) forces had expanded to include the defence [...]

NATO Deployable Airbase Activation Modules

Paving the Way Towards a NATO Deployable Airbase
While the current Force Planning methodology in NATO is highly consistent and stringent, one significant weakness is the system completely depends on the nations to quickly provide sufficient capability to respond to rapidly emerging challenges, [...]

Institutionalizing Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Lessons Learned from Afghanistan

An Overview – Part 2
As this is the conclusion of a two-part article, it is highly recommended to read, or re-read, Part 1 before reading this portion. As a reminder, this article represents the distillation of many hundreds of [...]

Small Drones

From Cheap Toys to Terrorist Tools – Detection and Disruption Challenges
In recent years, military personnel have become increasingly familiar with the use of drones for anything from practice targets to air strikes. Military drones show huge promise and will certainly play an important role in [...]

Institutionalizing Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Lessons Learned from Afghanistan

An Overview – Part 1
Background. In January 2014, the JAPCC, together with the Joint Allied Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC), was asked by NATO HQ Emerging Security Challenges Division (ESCD), on behalf of NATO’s Counter-Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Task Force, [...]

Standardization of Qualifications for NATO Helicopter Crews in Support of Land Operations

The Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC) conducted a study in 2012 examining the vertical lift cap­ability of the majority of European NATO member states. The Study, etc.). However, problems related to standardization of qualifications [...]

How is Close Air Support Changing?

Since ancient times, armies have sought to attack with the greatest force possible from the furthest distance away using such weapons as bows, slings and javelins; followed by catapults and ballista, but the clashes were [...]

Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems in Contested Environments

A Vulnerability Analysis
Over the past two decades, Remotely Piloted Aircraft System(s) (RPAS) have been fielded in increasing numbers across many nations and military services. RPAS provide distinctive capabilities for the Joint Force Commander (JFC) with reduced risk [...]

Enhancing NATO Joint Personnel Recovery Capability

As we prepare for the future, it is critical that NATO and its nations capture the lessons identified from recent crisis response and combat operations. Turning these into lessons learned as we transition from NATO [...]

Developing Future Force Protection Capability

Part 1: Where Might We Be Going and Where Should We Be Going?
This 2-part article focussed on Force Protection (FP) will discuss some of the issues surrounding where NATO FP might be going and explore where perhaps it should be going? In this first instalment, the author [...]

Fires are a Joint Business

Ten years have passed since Operation Anaconda took place, a direct combat operation in the Afghanistan theatre involving a large number of U.S. and coalition forces working with allied Afghan military units with the goal [...]

Personnel Recovery

That Others May Live to Return with Honour
Throughout history, armies traditionally fought the wars whilst government officials, explorers and tourists travelled and worked all over the globe. During war, travel or exploration, individuals may have become isolated from their group, or the [...]

NATO Air and Space Power in Counter-IED Operations

Publication of JAPCC Primer
In recent years, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have increasingly become a feature of modern conflict, their ease of production using locally-available materials and deployment via support networks providing adversaries, unable to compete on conventional terms, [...]

Contact Us

Contact Information

Joint Air Power Competence Centre
Römerstrasse 140
47546 Kalkar
Germany

+49 (0) 2824 90 2201

Download Request for Support

Please leave us a message