Multi-Domain Operations

NATO’s Military Instrument of Power enables, prepares, plans, orchestrates, and executes synchronized activities, across all domains and environments, at scale and the speed of relevance, in collaboration with other instruments of power, partners and stakeholders. This delivers tailored options at a time and place of our choosing that build advantage, across the shaping, contesting and fighting contexts, in order to decisively influence the attitudes and behaviours of adversaries and connected audiences.

Multi-Domain Operations aim to orchestrate and synchronise military activities with non-military activities, across all domains and environments, to enable commanders to deliver converging effects.

(Allied Command Transformation, Multi-Domain Operations Concept, Dec. 2021)

Related Publications

Strategic Horizons – Advancements in Air and Space for Deterrence and Defence

A Review of the JAPCC Conference 2023
By Col 
By Lt Col 
Between 10 and 12 October 2023, the Joint Air Power Competence Centre (JAPCC) conducted its most prestigious annual event, the Air and Space Power Conference, to enhance deterrence and defence as one of NATO’s core [...]

The Alliance’s Transition to Multi-Domain Operations

An AIRCOM Perspective
By Sqn Ld 
The concept of Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) has gained prominence in the context of NATO’s military strategy. What started years ago as an operational answer to peer adversary competition, in particular, to counter the Russian Anti-Access/Area [...]

The Finnish Air Force

Ensuring Readiness and Leveraging High-End Air Capabilities while Integrating with NATO
By Maj Gen 
‘Today and in the future, the FINAF has a crucial role in constituting the backbone of security in the challenging Northern Eastern operational environment.’ The Finnish Air Force (FINAF) is recognized for its rich history, [...]

The Challenge of Symbiosis

Synchronizing Kinetic and Non-Kinetic Ops
By Maj 
By Sqn Ldr 
The landscape of modern warfare has undergone significant transformations in recent years, becoming far more complex and multifaceted. The parameters of this new era of warfare have broadened beyond the traditional military-focused model, encompassing a [...]

The Heart of Decision Superiority

Evolve or Lose – Why Your Next War May Be Won or Lost in Seconds
By Col (ret.) 
‘The question is not whether NATO will need to evolve and develop its C4ISR capabilities but whether it can do so in time to meet the gathering threats to the Alliance.’ General James Cartwright, Former [...]

Quantum Technology for Defence

What to Expect for the Air and Space Domains
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Quantum Technology (QT) has its foundation in quantum mechanics, a discipline more than one hundred years old. The first applications of quantum mechanics, known as Quantum Revolution 1.0, include nuclear fission, lasers, semiconductors, etc., where [...]

Good News or Bad News?

Embryonic Development of Network Enabled Weapons
By Lt Col 
By Mr 
In the past few decades, the way we have understood conflict and war has seen a tremendous change. War had traditionally been understood as armed physical violence. Today, global security challenges are changing faster than [...]

MDO: What’s in a Name?

Transforming JAPCC’s JADO Project to Better Support ACT’s MDO Concept
By Lt Col 
What started years ago as an operational answer to counter the Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) threat has become one of the most challenging endeavours NATO has ever undertaken. The challenges posed by the A2/AD posture represent [...]

The Multi-Domain Combat Cloud in Light of Future Air Operations

An Enabler for Multi-Domain Operations
By Mr 
le Quement 
By Brig Gen 
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Much has been published on new operational concepts to re-enhance Western air superiority when facing threats posed by peer or near-peer competitors with long-range and precise fires. Most experts advocate for a much more integrated [...]

Terabytes of Unprocessed Data or Superior Pieces of Info

Turning Airborne ISR into Multi-Domain Operations
By Col 
Di Loreto 
By Lt Col 
The info-operational environment in which we are immersed is characterized by conflicts that span the entire spectrum of the competition continuum, including all possible combinations of conventional, asymmetric and hybrid operations. Our military organizations have [...]

All-Domain Operations in a Combined Environment

Joint All Domain Operations (JADO) is an evolution of the concept of Multi-Domain Operations (MDO). JADO incorporates the massive potential of a truly integrated force (the focus of MDO) and updates the concept by incorporating [...]

Transitioning NATO to an All-Domain Mindset

By Capt 
By Col 
Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO) is a concept with the ambition of maximizing the effectiveness of all declared NATO forces through broadly focusing on two critical interoperability areas: obstacles between services and across the nations. The [...]

Multi-Domain Combat Cloud

A Vision for the Future Battlefield
By Col 
‘… lack of information sharing impedes operational effectiveness. Information sharing restrictions and national caveats limit interoperability solutions and reduce operational effectiveness across the domains.’ This is one key finding of the Joint Air Power Strategy [...]

Future Battlespace Management

Fighting and Winning in the Increasingly Complex Air Operations Environment of the Future
By Lt Col 
Robust Anti-Access and Area-Denial (A2/AD) structures, coupled with the proliferation of advanced technologies across multiple domains, will dominate the third dimension in the coming decades. Potential adversaries will blend conventional, asymmetric, and hybrid capabilities across [...]

The Luftwaffe in Multi-Domain Operations

By Lt Gen 
NATO is living through one of the most challenging periods of its existence. Our security environment has become even more complex and increasingly dynamic. Our security situation is characterized by crises, conflicts and the revival [...]

Shaping the Future Multi-Domain C2

By Gen 
Jeffrey L. 
In the seven months since I took command of Allied Air Command, I have had the opportunity to travel across the European continent to see Air Power at work. I have seen tremendous work done [...]

NATO Training and Benefits of a Multi-Domain Approach to Targeting

By Mr 
Since the early 2000’s the western world, and particularly NATO, has been progressively scrutinized in their ability to conduct offensive operations. Targeting (the method by which we conduct offensive operations) has been developed and refined [...]

Multi-Domain Operations: Inconceivable!

By Lt Col 
‘You keep using that word. I do not think it means what you think it means.’ Inigo Montoya The classic line above from The Princess Bride is in response to one of the characters, Vizzini, [...]

Tracing Opinio Juris in National Cyber Security Strategy Documents

By Ann Väljataga, Law Researcher, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. The article below is a summary of Ann ­Väljataga, ‘Tracing Opinio Juris in National Cyber Security Strategy Documents’, NATO CCD COE, Tallinn, 2018. [...]

Cyberspace and Multi-Domain Operations

By Lt Col 
Paul J. 
It has been two years since NATO recognized Cyberspace as a Domain of Operations While the progress to date on these key elements is promising, having agreement on the message in these documents is only [...]

Multi-Domain Operations and Counter-Space

By Maj 
Richard W. 
We need to train a Space Mission Force. We need our space operators focused on what to do in case of a threat and to operate through the threat environment. General John Hyten, April 2016 [...]

Doolittle Series 18 - Multi-Domain Operations

Courtesy of Air University Press, Web Edition, 9 January 2019, Lemay Center for Doctrine Development and Education Note: Except for the Assessment done by the JAPCC, below is a summary of the article from ‘Doolittle [...]

Training Joint Forces for Multi-Domain Operations

By Lt Col 
‘I have instructed my staff to put large-scale, high intensity, all domains warfare against a near-peer adversary at the very heart of all our training from now on, and I am prepared to assume some [...]

Multi-Domain Operations and Challenges to Air Power

By Lt Col 
New concepts of operation, fuelled by technological advances, have facilitated interconnectivity across different domains of warfare. Consequently, this cross-domain interconnectivity now provides an opportunity to access objectives through non-linear (non-segregated) approaches. Indeed, the Alliance has [...]

Is Fluidity the Key to Effective Multi-Domain Operations?

By Wg Cdr 
Many will have heard the phrase ‘Flexibility is the Key to Air Power’. Some will have heard the corollary that ‘flexibility’ is too rigid a concept and that it is actually ‘fluidity’ that is required; [...]

The Complexity of Multi-Domain Operations

By Gen 
Herbert J. 
Courtesy of National Defense, NDIA’s Business & Technology Magazine For the US military to maintain its status as the greatest fighting force in the world, it must continue to learn and understand the Multi-Domain battlespace [...]

Accelerating Multi-­Domain Operations: Evolution of an Idea

By Gen 
Courtesy of Modern War Institute at West Point Multi-Domain Battle has a clear origin. Stemming from the idea that disruptive technologies will change the character of warfare, it recognizes that the way armies will fight [...]

Multi-Domain Operations

By Dr 
Jeffrey M. 
Courtesy of Air University Press. This essay is an abridged version of the article ‘Multi-Domain Operations – A Subtle but Significant Transition in Military Thought,’ published in The Air and Space Power Journal, Spring 2016. [...]

Defining the ‘Domain’ in Multi-Domain

By Dr 
By Lt Cdr 
Courtesy of Over the Horizon – Multi-Domain Operations & Strategy Multi-Domain’ is the word du jour of the defence enterprise. While there are plenty of philosophical discussions on the future of warfare, the important dialogue [...]

What is a Multi-Domain Operation?

By Lt Col 
By Lt Col 
The use of the term Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) has increased in popularity over the past decade as military services, those of the United States, in particular, have sought to codify their approach to warfare beyond [...]

Multi-Domain Command and Control

Maintaining Our Asymmetric Advantage
By Maj Gen 
Timothy M. 
‘War is the realm of uncertainty; three quarters of the factors on which action in war is based are wrapped in a fog of greater or lesser uncertainty. […] The commander in war must work [...]

On Multi-Domain Operations

Is NATO Today Sufficiently ‘Joint’ to Begin Discussions Regarding Multi-Domain Command and Control?
By Lt Col 
By Capt 
William A. 
Recently, there have been multiple think papers, studies and articles proposing a new way of viewing the future battlespace. Many of these treat the entire environment as one single domain or an integrated environment of [...]

Gateway to Multi-Domain Command and Control

The E-3A Final Lifetime Extension Program
By Maj 
By Maj 
Since NATO’s inception, airpower’s role has evolved from a key enabler of military capability to that of a primary means of executing the Alliance’s three core tasks: collective defence, crisis management and cooperative security. With [...]

Fifth Generation Air Combat

Maintaining the Joint Force Advantage
By Gen 
Jeffrey L. 
By Col 
Max M. 
Marosko III 
This is an abridged version of an article published in the Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies Journal Ed. No. 6, July 2016. For the purposes of this paper, we must define what a ‘fifth generation’ [...]

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